Consider the first sample test. We will randomly pick an interval of the permutation (1, 2, 3) (which has no inversions) and reverse the order of its elements. With probability , the interval will consist of a single element and the permutation will not be altered. With probability we will inverse the first two elements' order and obtain the permutation (2, 1, 3) which has one inversion. With the same probability we might pick the interval consisting of the last two elements which will lead to the permutation (1, 3, 2) with one inversion. Finally, with probability the randomly picked interval will contain all elements, leading to the permutation (3, 2, 1) with 3 inversions. Hence, the expected number of inversions is equal to .