In the first example there is only one suitable value x = 5. Then the Beaver takes 1 suitcase with 5 presents to the first planet. Here he spends 2 days: he hangs around on the first day, and he gives away five presents on the second day. He takes 2 suitcases with 10 presents to the second planet. Here he spends 3 days — he gives away 4 presents on the second and the third days and leaves the remaining 2 presents at the hotel. In total, the Beaver spends 5 days traveling.
For x = 4 or less the Beaver won't have enough presents for the second day on the first planet, so the voyage will end too soon. For x = 6 and more the Beaver will spend at least one more day on the second planet, and the voyage will take too long.